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This study examines the various forms of exploitation and suppression of women in a sexist and patriarchal society. The persistent inequalities between men and women and the subjugation of women by men are among the dominant themes in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus and Nawal El Saadawi’s Woman at Point Zero. This study explores the extent of women’s struggles against these forms of exploitation and suppression with a view to emancipating themselves. The research creates awareness on the need for women to rally around themselves in solidarity to confront the shackles of male brutality and dominance. Through their main characters, Adichie and Saadawi reveal how the physical, psychological and mental abuse of women can have damaging effects on them. The outcome of this study implicitly encourages the cooperation and support of all humanity in the fight to liberate women from all existing strictures against their peaceful co-existence alongside men.
1.1 background to the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Definition of Terms
1.8 Scope & Limitation of the study
1.9 Organization of Chapters
LITERATURE REVIEW & THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Review of Nigerian Federalism
2.2.1 Federalism Before Independence: From Two Protectorate to a Single Federation
2.2.2 Federalism after Independence; And the Nigeria’s First Attempt at Democratic Governance (1960-1965)
2.2.3 The Period of Military Rule (1966-1979)
2.3 Conceptual Clarification
2.3.1 Concept of Marginalization
2.3.2 Concept of Sovereign National Conference
2.4 Sovereign National Conference and Good Governance: The Linkage
2.4.1 National Democratic Coalition (NADECO) And Sovereign National Conference (SNC)
2.4.2 Rationale for Sovereign National Conference
2.4.3 Aims and Objectives of the Proposed SNC
2.5 SOKAPU and Sovereign National Conference
2.6 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Historical Background of The Case Study
3.1 History of Southern Kaduna
3.2 Geographical Location of Southern Kaduna
3.3 Cultural values of Southern Kaduna
3.4 Agriculture in Southern Kaduna
3.5 Arts in Southern Kaduna
3.6 Tourism in Southern Kaduna
Data Presentation & Analyses and Interpretations
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.3 Analysis of Responses
4.4Test of Research Questions
4.5 Summary of Findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the Study
Marginalization according to Jega, (2003) is “the deliberate disempowerment of a group of people in the federation politically, economically, socially, and militarily, by another group or groups, who during the relevant time frame wield power and control the allocation of materials and financial resources at the Centre of the federation.” “It entails the apparent deliberate exclusion of any particular group(s) by another similar group or groups from either having access to and or taking due possession of common key positions and common resources, as manifested in the political economic military, educational, media and bureaucratic realm. ”It denotes denial of something or obstruction from participating in what belongs to a group. In Nigerian politics it depicts neglect, non-involvement or inequity in the distribution of the socio-economic and political resources of the state or indices of development. (Obianyo 2003:66) The marginalization of the people of Southern Kaduna predate 1987 state creation white paper which exclude southern Kaduna from being an independent state of its own.
Nigeria’s political landscape has oscillated along the indices of relative stability and instability due to unlawful treatment (marginalization) of the minority tribes ever since the country’s independence. However, it is obvious that, even during its relatively best circumstances, it has never been smooth enough, which has stirred national debates on the imperative or otherwise of convening a sovereign conference to review the country’s terms of corporate existence, (Ahmed, (2012).
Anyoku (2012) observes that no one can seriously deny that there are major challenges currently facing our country. The challenges include the state of national insecurity which has been heightened by the activities of the Boko Haram; the raging debates over state creation and revenue derivation and allocation; the obvious decline in standards and scope of our public services, especially in education, health and the civil service. We need to convene a national conference of appropriately chosen representatives of the six geopolitical zones to dialogue on how to face these serious Challenges.
At the top of the agenda should be to reach a consensus on the fundamentals of our constitution including a new architecture of governance that will best promote fair treatment to all tribes, peace, stability and development in Nigeria.
Thus, it is the believed of the convener that’ if the Nigerians are to recapture the zeal with which the then regional premiers and their electorates embarked on the development of their regions, if we are to arrest the present destructive competition between our various ethnic groups for the control of power at the Centre, and if we are to repair the collapse in our societal value system which is at the root of the pervasive corruption and degradation of our public services, we should aim at getting the national conference to reach a consensus on devolving from the Centre to the six federation units responsibility for such areas of governance as internal security including the police, infrastructure, education, health and economic development, (Tinubu, 2012).
Obviously, I do not believe that we can successfully tackle the serious challenges currently facing our country on the basis of our existing constitution and architecture of governance. Without far-reaching changes to the 1999 constitution and our present governance structure, our quest for peace, stability and development will remain elusive. And to effect such changes, we need a national consensus which can only come from dialogue among representatives mandated for that purpose by the citizens of this country, (Anyaoku, 2012)
This is even though it is obvious that the country has no better alternative than to remain united, but this must be done with strict adherence to the principles and provisions of good governance, which is defined by accountability, transparency, competence and creativity.
For over three decades now, the people of Southern Kaduna have suffered marginalization in all facets of life. This ranges from poor infrastructure, to less appointment into key position in the civil service and above all, violent attack and assault on their people and villages. This scandalous attitude against the peace-loving people of Southern Kaduna gave reasons for the agitation of Gurara State and support for Sovereign National conference (SNC) as panacea for addressing marginalization and bad governance in its entire ramification. Since the present government structure has failed to meet the yearing of the people it represented, thus there is need for a sovereign national conference, whose decisions shall be subjected to a national referendum item-by-item. This reason however gave birth to this study, with a view to ascertaining how possible the sovereign national conference could be used to provide lasting solution to the problem of marginalization against the effectiveness and efficiency of our federalism.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Southern Kaduna Peoples’ Union (SOKAPU) had in many occasions lamented the socio-economic and political deprivation of the people of Southern Kaduna by the past administrations in the state.
Thus, is assumed that the above reason might have necessitate their decision to support the agitation for the convocation for sovereign National Conference (SNC) as a way-out of the perceived marginalization.
On this note, the aim of this project therefore is to investigate the possibility of exploring Sovereign National Conference (SNC) toward addressing the said problems.
1.3 Research Questions
This research will ask the following questions in the course of this study:
What factors led to the agitation for Sovereign National Conference?
Can SNC proffer solutions to political and socio-economic challenges of the people of the Southern Kaduna?
Is our present federalism effective or defective?
In what areas of the political and socio-economic facets are the minority tribes ‘marginalized’.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to establish how Sovereign National Conference can be used as a tool for promoting good governance in Nigeria and particularly addressing the agitation of minority group (SOKAPU) for equal representation in the government of Kaduna state. Other specifics objectives are:
To find-out factors that led to the agitation for Sovereign National Conference,
To ascertain how SNC can proffer solutions to political and socio-economic challenges of the people of the Southern Kaduna,
To investigate whether our present federalism is effective or defective, and
To find out the problem of marginalization of minority tribes’.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this research will broaden the researcher knowledge on the subject matter. It will also serve as reference material for other scholars as well as open door for further researches in the near future. This study is very significant to the marginalized people of Southern Kaduna, Nigeria and all the agitators and those opposing SNC and Nigerians at large.
However, the contribution of this study to our national understanding about the links between good governance and development cannot be overemphasized. This is because the study will enable us to know and appreciate the nature, role and functions of good government and socio-economic and political facers militating against Nigeria’s unity and progress in the committee of nations.
1.6 Research Methodology
Thisresearch analysed how SNC can be used to provide lasting solutions to the problem of marginalization in Nigeria. To achieve this, the researcher will use survey design to evaluate people’s opinion on the subject matter.
The population for this study is SOKAPU representing eight local governments in the southern Kaduna senatorial district. The Exco and member of the union will be administered questionnaires to establish their feeling and opinions on the subject matter. The data will be analyzed using arithmetic mean, simple percentage, mean and bar chart when necessary.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Sovereign National Conference: This is a forum through which national problems are discussed and solutions reached (Nwabu, 2012).
Good Governance: It connotes given people good representation and safe guiding and as well provide for their socio-political and economic welfare through transparent governance, (Nwabu, 2012).
Democracy: Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. This political arrangement allowed every adult male citizen to participate in government activities.
Dare, (1981) Postulated that modern democracy is a system of government which gives to individual maximum freedom and periodical opportunities to choose their leader and programmes. Multiple party-systems are a vital characteristic of a democratic government.
Political System: The system of government operated in the country e.g. Presidential, parliamentary, etc (Ahmed, 2010).
Participation: Mobilization & involvement of the local people in their socio economical and political development (Yakubu, 2012).
Development: is a comprehensive, economic, social, cultural and political process which aim at the constant improvement of the well-being of the entire population and of all individuals on the basis of their active, free and meaningful participation in development and in the fair distribution of benefits resulting there from, (UN 2001).
1.8 Organization of the Chapters
Chapter one consist of the following; Background to the Study, Statement of the Problem, Assumptions, Research Questions, objective of the study, Theory, Significance of study, Research methodology, Definition of key terms and the outline of the Chapter.
The chapter two comprises; Nigerian Federalism and it challenges, Conceptual Framework, Rationale for sovereign National Conference, SOKAPU and Sovereign National conference and Theoretical Framework.
Similarly, the chapter three described the historical background to the study and Chapter four present data collected and it analysis in the following order; Introduction, Analysis of responses, test of research questions and discussion of findings.
Lastly, chapter five contained the summary, conclusion and recommendation for improvement with Bibliography Appendix.
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