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1.1 Background of the Study
The political world is essentially male dominated despite the increase participation of women in politics in recent years. An examination of the political development in Nigeria suggests that the role of women in politics is minimal. Women participation in politics in the world especially Nigeria has been a sabotage for years, twenty to fifty years ago the women political participation was below 20% compared to five years ago, the rate of women participation has drastically increased to 35% probably because of the high rate of education women now has in the world and Nigeria in particular (Bello, 2003). Different scholar’s arguments have cropped up about the place of women in politics over the years.
Thus while the conservative theorists (Arowolo and Aluko, 2010) argue that the actual role of women and in fact, female folks generally ends in the kitchen, the liberalists. (Yetunde, 2003; Agbalajobi, 2010 and Erunke, 2009), have variously opined that women’s political process as those of their male counterparts, and hence, such responsibilities cannot be washed away in the societal scheme of things.
Discrimination has also played out with networking and in preferential treatment within the economic market. Men typically occupy positions of power within the job economy. Due to taste or preference for other men because they share similar characteristics, men in this position of power are more likely to have and promote other men, thus discrimination against women.
In no region of the developing world are women equal to men in legal, social and economic rights. Gender gaps are widespread in access to and control of resources in economic opportunities, in power and political voice. This has dealt a deadly blow to women participation in politics in Nigeria and Lagos state in specific.
Women who are intelligent are resourceful are relegated to the background simply because of age-long tradition and culture. What this means is that these women cannot contribute their own quota to development and politics in Nigeria and Lagos in particular. The time has come for Nigerians, most especially the Lagos State, to map out strategies that will promote high women political participation with gender equality which will consequently lead to development and high women attendance and participation in Lagos State politics. Nigerian politics have constituted a huge problematic in gender discourses as it patterns to the low level of women involvement in politics at whatever level of analysis.
According to Simbine (2003) factors affecting participation include traditional and cultural hindrances, lack of education, lack of resources and lack of opportunity. Even though these factors affecting participation apply to both sexes, in Nigeria, a review of women’s participation in party politics reveals that the females seem to be most affected.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Low women participation in all activities especially in the political arena is a serious challenge being faced by women in Lagos State.
The statement of the problem therefore, is the issue of low women political participation in Lagos state politics, which might have impacted negatively on the women’s participation in the past elections in Lagos State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the women participation in Nigeria Politics . The specific objectives are:
i) To assess the role women play in Lagos state general election.
ii)To ascertain the extent women are expose to politics.
iii) To evaluate the effectiveness of women in Lagos state election.
1.4 Research Questions
What role did women play in Lagos state general election?
To what extend did women expose to politics?
How effective is women in Lagos state election?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H1: Women played a significant role in Lagos state general election
H0: Women didn’t play significant role in Lagos state general election
H1: The extent of women exposure to politics in Lagos State is high.
H0: The extent of women exposure to politics in Lagos State is low.
H1: The women participation in the Lagos state general election is significantly high.
H0: The women participation in the Lagos state general election is significantly low.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Low women’s participation in Lagos politics is a contentious issue in the Lagos state political life. The issue of low women participation in politics has therefore been perceived by different scholars/people especially the women folk as an attempt to erode their fundamental rights. This research work therefore will address the following:
– To be beneficial to researchers, scholars and government agencies on gender related issues as it will aid them to understand the low level of women participation in politics.
– To help the influence of political advancement on women’ readiness to participating in politics in Lagos State.
– To help influence psychosocial issues such as fear of manipulation, men-favorism on the political participation performance of women in politics in Lagos State.
– To proffer an enduring solution through its findings and recommendations.
– To be useful to scholars who wish to carry out further research on women political participation in Nigeria and Lagos in particular.
– Contribute to the bulk of knowledge in the existing literature.
– To assist women understand monitoring strategy of their slots effectively and should not allow environmental influence to distract their political participation.
– It will help women to understand that politics is an important role to women and therefore should be used to enhance their political process.
– It will advised women to associate themselves with political-inclined and serious politicians so as to enhance their political learning capacity and performance.
– Nevertheless, the project will also serve as a guide to future researchers who intend to investigate in this area.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study examined women participation in politics in Lagos State, focusing more on the 2005-2015 General Election in Lagos State. Research is carried out within 3 local governments in Lagos state, each one of them represents the 3 senatorial district in Lagos state. The three local governments selected for the study are Surulere Local Government in Lagos-Central Senatorial Zone, Ikorodu Local Government in Lagos-East Senatorial Zone, and Ikeja Local Government in Lagos-West Senatorial District.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Three limitations were encountered in the study namely time constraint, financial constraint and disposition of respondents.
The time allocated to conduct the study was relatively short combined with other academic commitments of the researcher.
Due to limited fund, the researcher was unable to increase the coverage of the study by considering other local governments in and outside Lagos state.
Disposition of the respondents
The attitude of the respondents was not remarkable. Few of them were reluctant to participate in the survey. Some of them were diplomatic in answering the questions because they felt they might disclose the secrets of themselves.
1.9 Historical Background
Lagos is the smallest state in Nigeria with only 3,577 square kilometers. The area was called Lagos in 1427 by Portuguese explorers; until then, it was called Eko which meant “a war camp”.
During the era of the Benin Empire, trade expeditions were sent to Ghana by the Oba of Benin. At one time, a merchant complained to the Oba that they were being harassed by the Awori people- the first settlers of Lagos. This made the Oba furious and in a bid to end these harassments, the Oba sent his son to war the Awori people. On reaching there, the Awori people did not put up an opposition but requested that the prince of Benin remains and become their leader. The Oba agreed and provided his son with administrative support.
Eko became the major centre of Benin Empire’s trade. From the trade of spices to the trade of slaves, Eko provided the resources for running the empire’s affairs until 1851 when the British came. They annexed Eko and declared it their colony.
The capture of the remaining Benin Empire and the eventual capture of the Sokoto caliphate let to the amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914. That is the important place Lagos holds in the history of this country.
Today, with over 20 million people, 57 local government areas and the largest varieties of ethnicities and culture in Nigeria, Lagos still holds an important role in Nigeria than any other state. Hence it is called the center of excellence!
1.9.1 Political History of Lagos
Lagos State operates a multi-party political system. The politics of Lagos State has been dominated by the All Progressives Congress since 1999 when Bola Tinubu became the first democratically elected governor of Lagos State, followed closely by the People’s Democratic Party.
Lagos State has a classic tripartite separation of powers system consisting of the executive , the legislature and the judiciary .
The executive is headed by the governor who exercises executive power upon his or her election. Headed by a Speaker , the legislature consists of a forty-member House of Assembly vested with legislative power while the judiciary through the
Lagos State Judiciary is charged with the exercising of judicial power.
1.10 Definition of Terms
Women Participation: The act of women taking part in something (political).
Participation: The act of someone taking part in something (political).
Politics: The act of someone taking part in leadership of a town, state or in general, public affairs.
Women Exposure: Women experiencing something or being affected by it because of being in a particular situation or place.
1.11 Organization of Study
The research study is organized into the below chapters, sections and sub-sections.
Chapter one is the introduction of the study which includes; background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study, historical background, political history of Lagos, branches, definition of terms, organization of study.
Chapter two is also broken down into sections and sub-sections, it contains the literature review which comprises of the; introduction, conceptual framework, Nigerian women and political participation, role of women in lagos election, women and the 2005-2015 general elections, theoretical framework, empirical framework
Chapter three is the research methodology which includes the; introduction, research design, area of the study, population of the study, samples and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, reliability of the instrument, administration of the instrument, data analysis techniques.
Chapter four will serve the purpose of data presentation and analysis, analysis of responses to General questions on Women participation in Nigeria politics, a study of 3 local governments.
Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusion, recommendations, and suggestion for further study
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